Since universal pressure and curving force are caused by the surrounding fields they contain a strange aspect: if the cosmos around us was obliterated, all apparent forces of attraction would vanish and we would fall back into chaos or dissolve into a vacuum - in which a new universe could begin again, though. Since the universe around us will never be obliterated but expands as a result of the shoving pressure, naturally enough exactly this pressure is abating continuously. For that reason, matter will fall victim to decay on the whole – and it is to be hoped that a compensating creation of new matter will take place (as Fred Hoyle postulated it in his Steady State Theory of the universe) in order to sustain the presence of the
While trying to create matter from gamma rays in the particle accelerators, the scientists already made it up to mesons - or at least that’s what they believe. Since they do not want to wait for hundred of thousands of years until a proton comes into existence by pure chance through any constellation of radiation they try to produce matter by applying the highest energies. It is very likely that one day this will be successful if they don’t lose interest in financing the awfully expensive and actually futile particle accelerators any longer. Some have already been closed down and some will never be finished at all.
Since we do not require the hypothesis of the Big Bang for the origination of the world, we don’t have the theoretically demanded high temperatures at our disposal which are said to make the development of protons possible – but they are not necessary in general. We can assume that protons are not only merged in the nuclear reactors of the suns but that protons are even produced there – presumably as an extremely rare event. But one single proton every few thousand years is by the way sufficient to replace the loss of matter in the universe due to expansion. Yes, one single proton! For that reason, it must have taken quite a long time until the entire matter of the universe had been there all together.... But the universe is not the ash of a divine New Year’s firework after all but a product of eternity! And the fusion of protons to higher elements ought to be even rarer an event. But these processes will only set in when a great amount of protons is available under certain conditions. That way, even rare fusions can manage to produce the higher elements in the course of time which are relatively scarce anyway.
We already described the energy barrier which the universal pressure has to overcome in order to bring two spherical fields so close together that the curving force forges them together. After surmounting the repulsion two fields shoot into each other like fired by spring force. They create a new mutual field which strives for spherical shape in fact but can only achieve it within the framework of possible energy distribution. Therefore atoms or “atomic nuclei“ are only completely round in an ideal case. For the most part they are pear-shaped, oval, or dumbbell-shaped, even fields looking like peanuts are possible. The ratio between resistance (repulsion) and curving force (apparent attraction) determines the size of an atom; in every newly created field a new ratio of these forces is developing. The criterion for judging this important reaction is the surface of a field, so to speak a kind of resistance
Under their surfaces two individual protons hold a certain energy density which grows into a new field with double the volume upon merging - but under a surface which is suddenly smaller than the sum of surfaces would have been before. On this surface, which became smaller in comparison, the universal pressure all of a sudden finds less points of application for its force than before with the individual fields. On the other hand twice the energy is pounding against the new, diminished interior surface. That means: the equilibrium ratios which existed before are destroyed, first the surrounding fields advance, then the new spherical field swells up impulsively until a new ratio of the equilibriums has been established. This impulse is so violent that it causes an intense spreading of all sorts of electromagnetic radiation. This enormous energy impulse does not remain a secret to the environment; we call it fusion energy! With that both a part of the energy inherent in protons was released and the power of the universal pressure was brought into effect
So the new resistance shell of the newly accumulated field is comparatively smaller – as the geometry of the sphere entails. This also explains the so-called mass defect. The mass of the new field now appears to be smaller than the sum of the individual masses in total - but actually that should nearly go without saying.
In this connection we should know how to detect the masses of such small fields. The instrument developed for this purpose is called mass spectrometer. The atoms to be analysed are first passed through an electric field and then through a magnetic one. The difference in the velocity of the atoms (canal-ray beams) is compensated by means of sophisticated methods of deflection. The degree of their deflection in the electromagnetic field allows several possibilities to conclude to their mass which is defined by the inertia of their behaviour after all. Because of that it becomes immediately apparent that every surface variation of a merged field finds expression in changed charging. Therefore it is deflected a little bit more in the magnetic field thus indicating a lower mass. We should not forget after all that mass is an abstraction which does not stand for any substance! Therefore neutrons with low charge appear to be a little bit heavier than protons because they hardly show any reaction to the magnetic fields. But in truth neutrons are exactly as “heavy” as
About a quarter of the field’s energy is released when two fields are merging because the surface of the new field is diminished by about this amount. The “loss of mass” corresponds to the energy released. The technical utilization of this phenomenon is hindered by the fact that usually more energy has to be expended on pushing the fields across the barrier of repulsion than is gained in the end. But there is a trick to dodge this difficulty which surely finds its application in the sun. We know of course that the field of the proton is a product of time and space. This means there is a moment at every point of the field when the field does not exist at all so to speak. It is now within the realms of probability that a second field is making an attempt to approach in just that moment - and is possibly “absent” itself from exactly the same point. Then a kind of tunnel effect takes place. That means if we shove a hydrogen molecule completely into another one in just this way, we will actually obtain such a fusion field. It can be found in nature and is called deuteron. Just like hydrogen, it forms pairs and it received the name deuterium (D2) in that form. Thus deuteron consists of two protons which do not lie next to each other, though, but inside one another forming a one hundred percent overlap integral that way. Our fan wheel suddenly has two
When we bang another field into the deuteron or rather smuggle it in through the tunnel effect we obtain again a gain of energy and a loss of mass - but also a new field with a new name: tritium. We can also imagine, however, that this new field oscillates asymmetrically, has difficulties in maintaining the harmony, and therefore will decay again very soon. The third fan blade causes disturbance, it is cast out and promptly looses its oscillation. What comes out of the field is therefore a neutron. For that reason, tritium (a helium isotope) is radioactive. It decays again to deuterium. But deuterium does not live forever, either, and can decay back to hydrogen again. In all these processes new situations of equilibrium between universal pressure and individual pressure are established. The separated fields are expanding again but will be compressed immediately by the universal pressure (before it finds a bigger surface of application!), and again energy is released impulsively!
The fusion processes we just described can be continued further. When we bang two deuterons into each other or four hydrogen atoms or two tritium fields, it is possible that a new field is created in which four protons are involved, so to speak. This is possible because the impulses do not occupy the same spaces - two are, let’s say, at the front and two at the back. They are able to fill the field by evading each other without disturbing one another. This fan wheel with four blades is called helium. It is nothing less than the principal building block of the world!
Figure 56 symbolises the fusion of two protons to form one deuteron. The duplication of this oscillation field is shown in figure 57: helium. The figures reduce the events to the plane of the paper - we will get a better picture when we try to draw the paths of the impulses according to the three dimensions of the field. The obtained picture is approximately similar to the one depicted in figure 58. It makes us realise immediately that the directions of all impulses are the same.
The field is tightly packed with impulses, thus achieving a maximum of energy density. A further tunnelling in of an impulse is not conceivable anymore. In addition,we see clearly that the impulses create a circular oscillation in one (or several) place(s) of the field (1). This characteristic place of a field can be found at least once in all fields but it can also occur several times. The ability of the atom to bond results from this oscillation which we call valence. Since this oscillation is again a product of time and space it can turn out - independent of the total polarisation of the atom - to be polarised left-handed or right-handed. We will come back to that later.
The energy density of a field is always inversely proportional to its surface. The dimensions - i.e. the distances to one another - change accordingly. If one gram of hydrogen atoms still has a volume of 10
cm3, one gram of helium will not require four times this space but only ca. 27
cm3. The following principle results from that: the higher the energy of an atom the smaller it gets. This makes immediately sense if we take into consideration that two atoms restrict one another where forces of the same magnitude come together. This applies also with regard to the universal pressure which sends every field to its appropriate space. But this means also that one helium atom adopts a different size among helium atoms than among iron atoms...
As one can imagine the helium atom has a tremendously compact nature. Physicists also call this dense field alpha particles. From the view of particle theory it consists of two protons, two neutrons, and two electrons. But understandably it is impossible to actually extract such components from a helium atom just because they do not really exist within it. For this reason alone, it is completely impossible to fission a helium atom. When it is bombarded with other particles, a series of shoving processes takes place but an alpha particle remains an alpha particle. Even highly energetic gamma rays rebound literally... For this reason, helium is the first in a series of particularly proud atoms: the noble gases. Like the other representatives of this category it enters into molecular marriages very reluctantly and only in exceptional cases and does not even form lose pairs like hydrogen. Well, it is not imperative at all that helium can only come into existence indirectly through deuteron and tritium. Meeting processes with four protons involved are possible just as well. It is certainly a very rare event that four “disturbances” coincide and establish a harmonious oscillation field – however, it is not impossible.
Thus, there are many different possibilities for the development of this principal building block of the world and it is therefore not surprising that helium is the second most frequent element of the cosmos and, strictly speaking, it is found even more frequently because all other atoms of this world are combinations of helium, hydrogen, deuterium, and neutrons. And they are sentenced to decay back into these basic elements again one day. We will also call these basic elements primary fields. Their further combination into new elements is a simple jigsaw puzzle...
When two helium fields cross their barrier until the curving force takes effect, they can penetrate each other only a little to create a mutual field. Certainly they would fall apart again after a few fractions of a second; the ratio of the forces towards one another is bad. The situation is immediately different when three helium fields come together. This trinity already offers the universal pressure more possibilities to link them together; each of these fields practically lies on one Lagrangian point of the others, and therefore this intimate bond is found very often. It is about the most important atom of life: carbon.
We can well imagine what this carbon atom looks like: three helium fields, consequently three alpha particles, pressing against each other like the slices in a lemon (figure 59). The shells indicate only an arbitrary range of energy, the atomic field itself is of course invisible. So a carbon atom is structured quite simply. It is also the most asymmetrical atom among all the elements but this is exactly the basis for its enormous versatility.
course, several other elements can be combined from helium fields just
as easily. The combination of four alpha particles is called oxygen, 16O.
Five alpha particles produce again a particularly symmetrical field:
neon, 20Ne. As to be expected, it is thus a noble gas. Six
alpha particles result in magnesium, 24Mg. Seven -
silicon, 28Si. Eight - phosphor, 32S, Ten
– calcium, 40Ca. Thirteen – chromium, 52Cr.
And fourteen – iron, 56Fe!
Should we be particularly surprised that the elements just listed are the most frequent manifestations of matter within our universe? Obviously their production is quite unproblematic... Eleven combined helium fields could be one scandium isotope. Twelve make titanium, an element that is also frequently
Well, we could proceed with the deuterons in the same way as with the helium fields. But deuterons are not so stable; it is very unlikely that they play a great role in the constitution of matter. Therefore all atoms are built predominantly of the primary fields proton and helium while neutrons make living together a little more bearable. According to the pattern indicated above, we could work out a complete crystallography of the elements but it would get a bit too far away from the issue to run through all the combinations
About 1500 of such combinations exist. Approximately 75 per cent of them are unstable; they will change into stable nuclides sooner or later.
to our point of view, atoms with even mass numbers (20Ne or 32S)
should be particularly frequent and have a particular stability. This is
indeed correct: all the atoms of such a kind are particularly permanent
and more frequent by at least a power of ten than nuclides with an odd
mass number. This proves their composition from primary fields; all
these elements consist of helium and hydrogen, so to speak. The even
mass number is mainly determined by the alpha particles (= 4 protons or
2 protons and 2 neutrons). Moreover, there are additionally attached
protons and neutrons which already reduce the stability. All elements
with an odd mass number are therefore predominantly unstable. Exceptions
make only light elements
like (2 x 3=) 6Li, (2 x 5=) 10B and (2 x
7=) 14N. Even the hydrogen molecule 2H has an odd
mass number (2 x 1) and can be separated for that reason.
162 sorts of atoms are composed of helium and hydrogen pairs (and not deuterium!) for certain. Too many primary fields and neutrons already disturb the cohesion significantly; therefore, particularly heavy atoms have a tendency to radioactivity which we will discuss in more detail at a later point. A formation of molecules as in the case of hydrogen occurs especially with asymmetric atoms; their possibilities for attachment are particularly distinctive – for that reason, they are able to combine with each other quite well. Their asymmetries are easy to comprehend because the more primary fields are coming together, the more symmetrical the structure has to be. Therefore, asymmetries and the formation of molecules are found especially with lighter elements with odd mass number up to nitrogen, 14N. But carbon is also seized by great infatuation for its own kind because of its remarkable asymmetry, just like oxygen which prefers to form a molecule of three, 03 , that bears the name ozone. In principle, exotic manifestations are also possible with every element because nature is not universally “standardised“.
In all cases the preference of the atoms to enter into a bond (i.e. not to prevent it) depends on the spatial structure and their oscillational properties (= electricity). Each time these qualities have their origin in the arrangement of the primary fields which form the “atom”.