In the course of their research physicists discovered several fundamental forces. If they had hoped to gradually reduce the number of these different forces the contrary proved true in the end: modern particle physics discovered completely new effects which were apparently caused by completely new forces. But actually physics has always endeavoured basically to standardise all forces in one single force - as the sole cause of all effects. In their aspiration, physics was caught in a real frenzy of particles. One was not content with the building blocks of matter but also attributed the forces themselves to the exchange of further particles. In order to avoid that these particles came into conflict with the iron law of the conservation of energy many of them were simply called virtual, and one relied in the following on Heisenberg’s indeterminacy relation which states that it is impossible to determine the position, the state, and the impulse of a particle at the same time anyway because the influence of the observer cannot be eliminated. That is why it was even possible to operate with “borrowed” energies, and theories, which were more than over-subtle, were invented but in principle they do not explain anything though - because strictly speaking the exchange of “bosons” did in no way throw any light on the existence of the physical
This exchange of particles of force was described by means of the FEYNMAN diagram (figure 14). It was based on a purely pre-arranged definition. Therefore it appeared to be unrealistic and did not explain why an exchanged particle should get other particles to attract or repel each other.
The idea of the virtual energy, which goes back to Heisenberg who found out that there is obviously more energy available for the activities within the micro-universe than had to be expected from pure arithmetic, was not that bad at all. After all, we also realised that actually only a fraction of the energy can be noticed as an effect by any measuring instrument or any observer. If one only calculates with the effects perceived, one ignores - remember our allegory - all those punches of the boxer which went into thin air. But it is apparent that they do not go into thin air but are causing effects, too, which we just fail to notice.
Today one still knows the variety of at least six cosmic forces which are no fictitious forces like for instance the centrifugal force, the force of inertia, or the Coriolis force. Let’s specify them one after the other:
1) The FORCE OF GRAVITY (gravitation) which, for instance, keeps the planets in their orbit or causes weight. Their particle equivalent is the graviton.
2) The ELECTRICITY (electromagnetic interaction) which acts upon charged matter, causes magnetism and holds atoms together in the molecules. Its transmitter is allegedly the photon.
3) The WEAK FORCE type I (weak interaction by means of charged electric current) which can change elementary particles, i.e. turn protons into neutrons. Its conveyor are the so-called W+ and W- particles.
4) The WEAK FORCE type II (weak interaction by means of neutral electric current) which has not been observed yet in nature but which materialised like an unexpected demon in high-energy physics. It is attributed to the W° particles.
5) The STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE (strong interaction) which binds the components of the atomic nucleus. The corresponding particle is designated meson.
6) The COLOUR FORCE (chromodynamic interaction), although a purely speculative force which is made responsible for protons not being able to decay any further because it does not release the quarks, those particles which are assumed to constitute the proton. The annoying glue that persistently prevents us from finding the quarks because of its interaction is made of
Naming the last force may elicit a smile because it appears indisputably funny. What on earth happened? What had the physicists suddenly gotten into and why? The blame lies with the circumstance that the accelerators of high-energy physics have produced more and more particles which had to be integrated into the atom one after the other. A whole zoo of particles soon romped about in the accelerators and one began to put them into categories. Every particle demanded by theory was found straight-away by sifting through thousands of bubble chamber photographs again and again. And obviously the physicists have not become aware up to now that they created these particles indeed and did not knock them out of the atom in any way.
Well, even we discovered a case of encounter between the impulses which provided an instable field (encounter event e!). Every possible kind of meeting is in principle possible. And so particles have been produced long since which appeared to be even heavier than some atoms but the confusion they created arose without a reason. They don’t have anything to do with atoms at all.
It is a strange game that the physicists are playing and it shows how much stamina the human mind has in sticking to certain ideas. After all, clinging to the traditional belongs to the modes of behaviour which are characteristic of mankind; the history of science contains many examples how reasonable solutions to new problems were successfully prevented by
The crowning event of science’s not getting anywhere is the theoretical invention of the quarks. But of course it will be possible to produce particles in the accelerators one day which are sporting all the demanded characteristics of the quarks …
The whole thing reminds us of the difficulty that astronomers once had with the planetary motion. Since they were obsessed with certain ideas - for example Aristotle’s philosophical demand for perfectly circular orbits - Ptolemy invented the epicycles; an idea which held the attention of several generations of astronomers. Even Copernicus himself - getting wise to the irregular movement of the planets - still had to resort to them. Of course the epicycles described the planetary orbits correctly and in a calculable way but they were nevertheless just downright wrong and it was not until Kepler had thought hard about it for several years that they were dismissed. But he who wants to can still discover them because the planets obviously describe these epicycles in their retrograde motion. And the proofs for the many, many particles of high-energy physics are just as obvious. They don’t mean a thing and for that reason, we will not go deeper into the matter of the particles because in truth the world is not as complicated as it is constructed by the physicists.
Well, apart from the fact that all forces remained unexplained even under the assumption of particles, gravitation, of all things, could not be illustrated with this method, either – because nothing at all can be done with the gravitons. Though the cause of gravitation should be the easiest to find! Maybe it has remained such a big mystery only due to a
For resolving this mystery we take a ride on the bus. In the beginning the bus is empty but more and more people get on board and soon there is a big crowd. We will notice in an unpleasant way that more and more people are pressing against us and that they are doing so with increasing force. If we did not know about the true facts we could over-subtly postulate a force which is inherent in us and has the mysterious property to attract people! And we would promptly labour under a fallacy. Because it is the pressure arising from the people in the bus which is pressing them against us...
Besides many others, the physicist Dr. Pages from Perpignan already had the idea that gravitation was in truth a pressure on the body. At that time he met with a gale of laughter on the grounds that one only had to reverse the preceding signs in Newton’s equation and everything would remain as it had been before. But similar thoughts can already be found with Newton - maybe he thought this solution was a little too complicated. The oldest pressure-gravitation theory was issued by Georges Louis de Sage (1747/1756) who already made the mistake to argue with gravity particles which have not been found up to this day. The ether-vortex theories of René Descartes (1644) and Lord Kelvin (1867) were pressure theories – but so complicated that nobody comprehended them. Allegedly Quirino Majorana (1871 – 1957) even proved the pressure theory of gravitation in experiments but no-one took notice of his astounding
The physicist Mach also had some ideas which aimed at the influence or resistance of surrounding masses and were even discussed by Einstein. But for Einstein, all these solutions were unacceptable, he was the first to do away with gravitation at all revealing it as a fictitious force as defined by the forces of inertia. It didn’t become more explainable by that but Einstein’s equations have at least the merit that they can be used with any preceding sign. In fact, Einstein discovered the mirror image of the truth, so to speak, when he assumed that mass was curving space - although without coming across the original of the mirror image. Because like all the other physicists he started out from the assumption of a central mass (apart from the fact that in his theory the mass is actually represented by energy and impulse). But we will see in a minute that gravitation is created by the surrounding masses (fields) without exception:
We know that the propagation of the impulses of a proton is running into space until it meets with resistance in form of the oscillations of other protons. It is certainly not difficult to picture this more or less three-dimensionally. That these fields penetrate each other and, if considered in an over-subtle manner, that all fields of this universe are interwoven, is another useful concept. This principle applies to all spherical fields. Of course, celestial bodies are spherical fields as well because they consist of protons whose vibrations amount to big total fields. Since matter - as we already put it - stands in its own way, it is under pressure. It does not terminate at all where our senses perceive boundaries. Every field extends far beyond its visible sphere and is in contact with other fields. Just as on the bus, a force is created which we can best define with following
ALL MATTER REPELS MATTER!
Well, actually this is exactly the opposite of what has been assumed so far. And at first it appears to be completely insane which is a very good sign because it reminds of a remark that Bohr made when he rose to his feet after a lecture of Wolfgang Pauli and declared: “We all agree that your theory is crazy. We just can’t reach an agreement in one question: is it crazy
We will see that this crazy idea is leading to astonishing solutions. Contrary to the gravitation which was an additional property of matter and seemed rather farfetched, the repelling force is produced automatically through the pure existence of matter. For that reason, it seems to be more logical, i.e. more satisfying in a philosophical way. Because we did not have to invent anything in addition; space, time, and energy are still sufficient for the functioning of the
We call this self-substantiated principle the repulsion principle. It is the principle of Existence as such. Because there is only this one repulsive force! All other forces are validated by it. And behind this force, as behind everything we have previously discovered, is only T.A.O. and nothing
If we consider the cosmos to be filled with spherical fields and chose one as an object for observation, the question arises: who exerts more pressure on who - the individual field on the surrounding fields or the surrounding fields on the individual one? The question answers itself: of course the individual field is squeezed like hell from all directions! We call this pressure the universal pressure because it comes from the universe or universally from all other fields. Acting against it is the individual pressure of every field. This illuminates why the sphere is the preferred body in the cosmos. This individual pressure of the field contains also that part of the universal pressure which is having an effect right through the field because shadowing of the universal pressure is determined by the density of the field - and therefore this density determines the gravitational effect. At this point, we have to declare specifically in addition that we chose the term pressure for stylistic reasons only but physically speaking it is not correct - because actually we mean repulsion. So we are not developing a gravitation-pressure theory but a gravitation-repulsion theory! But universal pressure just sounds more tersely than universal repulsion. It is the same as with the word wave which we apply sloppily and inappropriately sometimes. Because the transmission of an impulse in T.A.O. is always done by means of vibrations and oscillations - not by means of waves. But after we have stated it clearly it won’t be so terrible if we use that inaccurate but lovely word again and again. Therefore the resistance of “masses” against each other is never created by waves but by the tiny vibrational shoves which their fields exert on each other. But we will examine this more closely at a later time.
Actually, the universal pressure has the tendency to squeeze all protons as tightly together as possible. The spherical fields, however, create a force towards one another which is sometimes stronger than the universal pressure. We already know it: electricity. Because all protons vibrate in the same way after all: the space around each proton is polarised and this reinforces their repulsive effect which of course has existed from the beginning according to the repulsion principle. Therefore the universal pressure will not succeed so easily in squeezing the protons together. The electricity together with the ubiquitous repulsion prevents it effectively. It is the second force in our specification and clearly predominates between the fields. For that reason, the physicists have found long since that gravitation doesn’t make almost any difference in particle physics whereas the game of the charges plays the leading
Many models for the origin of the world are based on the assumption that clouds of hydrogen formed into balls because of gravitation and that the celestial bodies were created in that way. This is rather incredulous! Gaseous hydrogen - hence protons - will always evaporate in all directions; its fields are too small in relation to the field of the cosmos. Think of the fan wheel where fields that were small and quick stood a better chance of going through the wheel. The same applies to fields in general because the resistance they offer to one another is always the product of the two coinciding
Although we will deal with gravitation and its further effects on the basis of the universal pressure in more detail later-on we can already claim that we resolved the great mystery of the origin of gravitation in a few sentences. Prior to that we had already discovered electricity. Now there is another force which is not to be underestimated and which is substantiated by itself nevertheless. Envision some kind of ruler before your mind’s eye which is getting caught between universal pressure and individual pressure (figure 15).
We don’t need a lot of imagination to picture the ruler being deformed. It is bent or curved around the field by space. If we didn’t know anything about the geometrical conditions of the space, we would have to invent a new force as cause of this mysterious curvature. Maybe we should wittily call it curving force. When the ruler follows the curving force willingly, it simply bends around the spherical field according to its ductility. When the tormented ruler, however, is flexible and likes to remain straight, the universal pressure at the ends of the ruler outweighs the counteracting individual pressure of the spherical field in the centre of the ruler and the ruler is getting closer to the field. The ideal place for the pressured ruler would be the centre of the field where it would be left in peace, and this is exactly where it would go if it could. We will immediately understand that the curving force is the stronger the more we approach the spherical field. That means the extent of the curving force is proportional to the intensity of the field’s
What are we actually discovering here? Due to the spherical arrangement of the vibrating fields the space is really “curved”! Fields curve around the space. What would Einstein say to
Now what happens when two protons meet? Normally their repulsion will prevail. But when we press them together with a little force, the curving force begins to take effect. That means each proton tries to bend the other around it, tries to deform it. We have to understand this choice of words correctly: of course, protons don’t try anything, we should rather say: the universal pressure is bending the protons around one another... But as we know what is meant we can spare ourselves such stilted idiomatic expressions. For the protons, there is no way out, they will both literally bang into another and merge to form a new mutual
Again we should be more precise to prevent that the wrong images and the wrong questions arise: fields do not just move through T.A.O., they propagate! After all they basically exist only of electromagnetic impulses. Since these impulses are shoves of force they generate resistance or evade each other. For that reason, proton fields are not just oscillating states like the rings of waves on a lake which would override but never repel one another! With such a wrong image we could not substantiate that the force is generated between the impulse fields. But we can do so because we are talking about vibration fields whose impulses can also bounce off each other. This is the slight but important difference! Although they only propagate in T.A.O., oscillating, vibrating spherical fields can therefore influence each other in such a way that it looks as if a force was at
This merging force which, however, is only effective in the vicinity of proton fields and which we called curving force is nothing else but the strong interaction postulated by particle physics, hence the fifth force in our specification. It is a logical consequence of the repulsion principle and of the geometry of the space. It would not work without the universal pressure - which means that the strong interaction has indeed its cause in the surrounding “mass” but appears to be so strong that naturally it could never be explained with gravitation being immanent to the
According to popular theory, protons are positively charged and should be flying apart... the truth is they cannot be separated because due to the integration of their individual fields they combine to form new total fields. One would have to separate the fields again – but that is practically impossible. For that reason, the protons in an atomic nucleus do not lie side by side but inside each other (we will discuss this in detail later-on). Therefore the intensity ratio of the curving force (strong interaction) compared to the electric force (the effect of the universal pressure without the influence of curvature) can be depicted geometrically in a simple way without getting carried away by complicated mathematics (figure 16).
When two fields of the same size are drawn from a mutual centre up to the area where the curving effect is strongest, i.e. until their boundaries touch, the force changes in the same ratio in which the angle of the lines of projection (1) increases. In the centre of the fields, the curving force is practically identical with the normal universal pressure effect; when we equate it and thus the electrical force with 1 the angle of ca. 130 degrees indicates an increase of the dynamic effect by 130 because of the curvature. In fact, the strong interaction turns out to be about 130 times stronger than electricity. Compared to that, the gravitation depending on a central mass would have only an intensity of ca.
10-42. The weak interaction changes the electricity only by a factor of about 10.
This interaction is also immediately comprehended: if a little less force is required for merging a proton and a neutron because the electric repulsion is weaker, we can make a new short-range force, which apparently helps us, responsible for this difference. This imaginary force is identical with the weak interaction type I. In this case, however, the neutron would not stay neutral, because it partially adopts the vibrations of the proton - as if a W+ (or W-) particle changed over. If we played the same game with two neutrons, the result would be again a difference in forces, and we would have to discover another helpful force: the weak interaction of type II which is obviously replacing completely neutral W° particles because nothing has changed with the neutrons. We are realising that the different forces come about only because of the different natures of the
Every time two fields unite, it plays a role if they are polarised fields or neutrons. Proton and neutron fields are actually perfectly similar to each other, only their spatial polarisation is different. The different interactions seem to operate according to the prevailing case - but the whole game goes back to one single director: the repulsion
The sixth force, the so-called colour force (chromo-dynamic interaction) is a hypothesis which does not find an equivalent in nature. Within the proton, there aren’t any quarks or gluons. But there are all kinds of oscillation fields imaginable consisting of uncountable vibrations... a sea of particles because every kind of particle can be produced in principle. How “heavy” or how “big” it appears, how it is “charged” and which “spin” it has or how long it will exist depends on the conditions of the encounter in the surroundings and on the quantities of energy.
And so the physicists of this world will go on trying to shatter matter and to identify the thus newly created impulse fields. Quarks have not been found yet - that is prevented by the persistent colour force, after all! - but one day such a product from the accelerator will fit in with the ideas of the physicists and they will cry out: “Eureka, we found the
Although, in that case one will have to forget about the hypothesis of the colour force...
Concerning the concept of force, here some remarks by
the philosopher HUME:
”We have sought in vain for an idea of power or necessary connexion in
all the sources from which we could suppose it to be derived."
"The scenes of the
universe are continually shifting, and one object follows another in an
uninterrupted succession; but the power of force, which actuates the
whole machine, is entirely concealed from us. It is impossible,
therefore, that the idea of power can be derived from the contemplation
of bodies, in single instances of their operation; because no bodies
ever discover any power, which can be the original of this idea."
„We find by experience, that a body at rest or in motion continues for
ever in its present state, and that a body impelled takes as much motion
from the impelling body as it acquires itself. When we call this a vis
inertiae, we only mark these facts, without pretending to have any idea
of the inert power; in the same manner as, when we talk of gravity, we
mean certain effects, without comprehending that active power.“