Dealing with the everyday phenomenon of light
will convey a deeper understanding for the structure
and  the course of electromagnetic "waves".
Actually, everything is LIGHT. Even atomic FIELDS
are nothing but LIGHT – electromagnetic impulses
held captive by other impulses.
Refraction and diffraction of  light and other mysteries
 are solved by means of a simple model.

     A golden yellow field of grain surging in the wind should now appear before our mind’s eye... But what is a field of grain doing in a chapter about light? Does this not stretch the term “General Field Theory“ a little too much? On no account, because the pensive consideration of a field of grain will help us find and comprehend some extremely important definitions about the spreading of fields and impulse propagation in the field of T.A.O.. By now the domino principle will certainly be clear to us, after all the transmission of impulses in T.A.O. follows this concept - and we already know that the “dominoes”, i.e. the “granules” of T.A.O. are not bodily moving from A to B but that only a transmission of energy (properly speaking a transmission of energetic information) is taking place so that a domino velocity is out of the question while there is a velocity in the spreading of the apparent wave. Hence, it is not an “object” that is moving - and we realised that there is no such thing as a “real” movement2 of material bodies in the universe at all. This is justifiable in a philosophical point of view as well because logical reasons for the existence of real movements could not be given easily!

     The domino principle can be applied to the stalks of a field of grain. They, too, can shove each other and transmit information without leaving their place. The structure of the field of grain resembles the matrix of T.A.O. and we can well imagine that we could pull away the field when the wind is blowing a lane or an eddy into the stalks - the lane or the eddy would remain in the same place. On the other hand, the eddy could move or the lane could go wandering - and the field would not follow!. This is also the more important picture for us because the universal field, T.A.O., does certainly not move - and within its matrix there are also only movements of the information or energy transfers - no matter what we like to call them. Impulses fields – just like the eddy in the field of grain - can propagate completely within T.A.O. - and within these impulse fields other fields can be vibrating as well - and all these fields are only connected by their own plane of action (as symbolised with toothed wheel and worm). They can move within T.A.O., penetrate or “fight” each other, interfere with, intensify, and annihilate one another... T.A.O. remains unmoved during all this like a field of grain in a storm.

     A proton which - as we already know - is a field of impulses does not move through T.A.O. like an object but it propagates like an eddy in a field of grain! This is an unexpected, absolutely unbelievable conclusion. It means that a thrown stone does not simply fly along solidly but that it pulsates through the matrix! Its field vibrates through the “granules” of the space; actually the stone consists only of a vibrational image of an arrangement of atoms, and this vibrational image moves on by means of continuous induction and sequencing of further vibrational images, in the same way as an EM (electromagnetic) wave induces its fields one after the other... One could almost say the stone “beams“ itself through the fields of the universe - and this applies to every field! Even a playboy behind the wheel of his Ferrari is “beaming” through the world in this way. And despite the 220 kilometres per hour on the motorway nothing really moves - but a field of information in form of a Ferrari plus driver is propagating! All objects in this universe move in the same way - from atoms to giant galaxies. And that what is moving is not only the visible and perceptible range of the field but everything that makes the field and is part of it; everything it sets into torsional vibration or fluctuation all around it – all of that follows the movement! We will realise that this knowledge is tremendously important and that we will be confronted with it again in the chapters “Inertia“, “Gravity“, and “Relativity“. (Bitte auch Beitrag "Konstanz und Isotropie des Lichts" beachten!)

     At this point we want to deal with the light only. In fact, the usual depiction of an EM-wave shows us the rectangular connection of the planes of action (E-field and M-field) quite well. But it also leads us astray because it gives the impression that we are dealing with a wave in the form of an oscillation. But we know the difference and we know that the individual fields are created by the succession of independent impulses which leads to the fact that they may appear as if they had the properties of both a wave and a particle.

     Light is message and messenger in one. It is practically caused and absorbed again by all the fields provided that matching frequencies coincide. Therefore every atom can only gather very particular light waves and absorb their energy. As a rule, the wavelengths concerned are always the same and can also be created by the correspondent atom itself. The most frequent reaction partner of light is the electron, and obviously the particle theory of the electron leads to the particle theory of the light. But the photon is pure fiction. From our point of view we will comprehend the photoelectric effect (Einstein was awarded the Nobel price for its discovery) in a completely different way. The concepts wavelength and frequency, however, will be used with light in the general sense because the difference to the genuine wave is rather irrelevant with most phenomena and becomes only significant in those cases where connections of the phases with each other would have to lead to absurd results. For example, long waves would have to run faster than short ones. As a result, the velocity of light would therefore depend on the colour which is certainly not the case 

    We can easily symbolise a series of light impulses with a couple of beer mats threaded onto a string (instead of with a spiral) (figure 48). 


     The density of the beer mats marks the characteristic of the light, the colour - or whether it is a matter of X-rays, gamma rays, or radio waves. By means of this simple beer mat model we can conduct very nice experiments in our minds. After all, we are talking about a helical, circular shove which creates a series of - let’s say - discoid fields (“wave fronts”). The circular shove dashes tremendously quick around the travelling direction of the impulse. Since the progressive movement itself takes place at the velocity of light, the helical movement - though it is of course also a fictitious movement like the first - even has to exceed the velocity of light significantly.

     As we already discovered in the beginning, our various conditions of encounter apply to the impulses of light unrestrictedly. It is therefore possible that “particles” are created from strong light impulses (gamma rays) as we already discussed in the chapter “T.A.O.“. What we want to examine now with our beer mat model are the phenomena of diffraction and refraction.

     Well, the velocity of light is on no account universally standardised but it depends on the medium in which the impulse spreads. In a vacuum, in which T.A.O. remains nearly at rest, this velocity is only determined by the properties of the matrix. In material media, the impulse meets with resistance at the vibrations of the atoms and is slowing down. If the impulse encounters an obstacle only on one side, it is retarded only on this side whereas the part of the impulse outside of the medium will maintain its speed. The result is a change in the direction of the impulse as demonstrated in figure 49.

Fig.49   Fig.50  Fig.51

     Light is therefore diffracted at edges or by small bodies. This diffraction is the stronger the closer the beer mats follow each other, that means the shorter the wavelength of the succession of impulses. At the same time, differences in the path length occur, the impulses override each other, and they interfere. For that reason, we receive an interference pattern on a screen which we use to catch the diffracted light. The diffraction fringe rings in figure 50 demonstrate very nicely how the individual colours are diffracted to a different extent.

     The refraction of light is just as easy to comprehend. When a sequence of impulses enters obliquely into a retarding medium, again only a part of the beer mat is slowed down whereas the unaffected part overtakes the retarded one a little bit. Understandably the light is therefore again subject to a change in direction (figure 51). Again this change depends on how many mats are retarded within a certain time. The more mats, the stronger the refraction. The impulses of red light are farther apart than those of violet light, therefore the first is refracted less than the latter. The degree of refraction is characteristic for every medium, too. In the same way as upon entering a medium, light is also refracted upon leaving it - but in the opposite direction. 

     Why light slows down in a medium is easy to explain: the fields of the atoms often oscillate inverse to the direction of the impulses of the light. Although it is still travelling at the velocity of light it is delayed a little. Since light of a short wavelength is of course delayed more often, a prism makes the individual wavelengths exit in different directions. The picture we receive through it is known as spectrum (figure 52).


     Of course, the reversed process is also possible: a field of atoms oscillating in the same direction as the movement of light, takes the light impulse with it and advances it a little. This process is called anomalous dispersion. This means that the index of refraction for light of short wavelength is getting smaller than that for light of long wavelength. This is characteristic of only a few substances; their sympathetic oscillation leads most often to an increased absorption of the light which conveys part of its energy to the fields. A typical example of this behaviour is for instance exhibited by solid fuchsine. It is a popular exam question for students of physics if this acceleration of the light within a medium contradicts Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. The mental dilemma, however, only occurs when one regards light as a genuine wave in which the phase velocity depends on the frequency. In our opinion, however, there is not always a compelling connection. With that, the mysteries have not been solved completely, though, because the individual light pulse apparently adopts superluminal velocity as well after all. In this case, however, it is a deception - the inability to exceed the velocity of light remains secured since the transmitted impulse is a secondary impulse emitted by the absorbing field.

     When an impulse collides with a field it can be “taken along” by an impulse which happens to be running in the same direction. This has more or less the effect of a “short-cut”, that means the normally helical light pulse is drawn forward a little at that moment. The effect per atom is in fact infinitesimal but sums up to measurable ranges by the multitude of atoms. In essence the physicist designates phenomena of this and of similar kind as phase shift. Since the emerging impulses are actually no longer identical with the ones that entered due to the distortion, at best a piece of information that was modulated is partially destroyed – but the original form is still discernible.

   What is passed on in the fuchsine is therefore not exactly the entered impulse; that what emerges from the field of the fuchsine, however, carries a part of the message (colour!) of the original impulse. Obviously there has to be something which could possibly be faster than light: information (if we disregard the circumpolar movement of impulse shoves in T.A.O.). That means if light means energy transport without the transport of matter, transport of information could also be possible without the transport of energy. This would not affect the Special Theory of Relativity in any way.

    It is also possible to speed up light to superluminal velocity by means of the tunnel effect, as Professor Günter Nimtz from Cologne or Raymond Chiao from Berkeley demonstrated. However, the researchers have been violently attacked, as if to say: “Such statements cannot be reconciled with the current physical conception of the world and actually such nonsense should not be discussed at all.” The speed limit for light is therefore subject of particular discussion at the moment. But the expression superluminal velocity does not make any sense, anyway. Because as already explained, this velocity depends on the medium, and theoretically it has a postulated peak value only in vacuum - but an absolute vacuum does not exist anywhere! What is more, relative superluminal velocities are also possible, as we will soon learn... 

     When the refraction of the light upon exiting is so strong that it is refracted back into the medium, we are talking about total internal reflection (figure 53).

Fig.53 Fig.54

     In this case, the impulse oscillates only partially out of the medium, it gets faster on one side and changes into the direction in which there is again a retarding medium. This transition of the totally reflecting surface resembles the tunnel effect of the electron. Prisms of this kind are employed in our binoculars. They are practically “bumping” the light off. Optical fibres work in a very similar way according to the same principle.

     The nice round beer mats of our model can also be broken, as shown in figure 54. The light striking a reflecting surface first fractures one side of the mat, is tilted in a certain angle by the impact and promptly looses the second half of the round shove. Result: the impulse is only travelling to and fro on the same plane. We already defined such an impulse as polarised. The impulse can also loose its halves when penetrating narrow crystal structures.

     The effect of polarised light on matter is a little different from that of unpolarised light. The conditions of absorption and reflection change. Metal absorb it much better than normal light. Therefore it affects thin metal structures by disturbing their order. For that reason, a farmer will never leave his scythe lying in the moonlight (moonlight is reflected and thus polarised light). Moonlight also blunts razor blades and changes chemical reactions. So when the alchemists of the Middle Ages carried out many an experiment only by moonlight they didn’t do it for mystical reasons alone.

    Neither is it a fairytale that blunt razorblades become sharp-edged again in pyramids. We certainly know after all that every matter continues into space - even in a polarised one - and that it is thus influenced by other fields. The pyramidal incidence of the space changes sharp metal structures and makes them sharper yet. In that way, every interior space of a particular geometrical hollow body has its characteristic function (beer, for examples, turns bad in cornered barrels).
By means of our repulsion principle we could throw light on many phenomena of parapsychology which are negated by the sciences. But this would already be enough material for a book on its own. Here we only want to show that light does not have any mysterious properties and that its game can be comprehended quite easily.

     Even gamma and X-rays or radio waves are subject to the same rules. Diffraction and refraction exist for them, either, although under other conditions each. And of course electron waves can be treated in the same way as light waves. In this case diffraction, reflection, and refraction take place in electric or magnetic fields for the most part because as a rule electron waves are slower than light waves. After all, they are practically “compressed light” because they are composed of impulses (just remember figures 10 and 11). We will again deal with electron waves when we examine the photoelectric effect ,and the question of the velocity of light will occupy us once again in the chapter about the Theory of Relativity. Figure 55 shows diffraction rings which come into existence when a bunch of electrons is passing through a crystal. Did you notice the similarity to figure 50? 





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