We already got acquainted with the first and simplest kind of an atom: with the proton, a spherical field which structures or polarises the space around it and for that reason always carries a charge in the language of physics. Depending on the form of polarisation, “negative“ (left-hand) or “positive“ (right-hand) charge is possible, we then speak of negative or positive ions. The polarisation of the atom can also be mixed (unordered) and thus give the impression that the atom is “neutral“. With hydrogen, however, this condition is more likely a special case – for this atom chiefly appears as an ion in the interaction of the elements.
Since hydrogen atoms repel each other strongly they mainly exist as gas. This gas can only become liquid or solid (crystalline) under high pressure and simultaneous extraction of energy (cooling). This is possible because the electromagnetic state of oscillation of the atom can be influenced by radiation or absorption of
One will get sufficient information about the universal significance of this atom in every book about chemistry or physics, therefore we will keep to the most essential properties. Like all the other atoms hydrogen manipulates the electromagnetic information or the energetic states in form of emitted or absorbed “light”. Due to its simplicity the hydrogen atom acquired particular significance in the exploration of the atomic structure and origination of light. When its light arc emissions were examined a strange regularity in its spectrum was found. Based on this regularity, Niels Bohr developed an atomic model which was very successful although one soon had to realise that the atom could by no means correspond to this theory of quantum shells or
Bohr substantiated his quantum jump theory of the origination of light by means of the observation of one single hydrogen atom. But we ask ourselves if it is really admissible to assign this phenomenon of the creation of light to the electron waves of one single, isolated atom. Because nowhere in this world do such lonely hydrogen atoms exist. One single hydrogen atom (proton) would not be possible at all; its existence is always determined and maintained by other atoms - predominantly by other hydrogen
Well, let’s examine the hydrogen atom a little closer (figure 10). Precisely defined, it is not such an ideal spherical field as in our generalisation of it. When we take a snapshot of the field we see that the two shoves orbit the field asymmetrically. When they are on one side, there is nothing on the other side at the same time - except for the matrix, T.A.O. Remember our fan wheel again: when we want to move a second wheel into the first one we just have to make sure that the blades don’t get into each others way. The wheels would have to run in synchronicity, and both could exist without disturbing one another (figure 42).
The area which the two wheels share is called the overlap integral. Because of this circumstance, two hydrogen atoms could lie side by side and maintain a mutual image of oscillation. The harmony of their electron waves will not be disturbed by that. Extreme cooling increases the overlap integral so much in certain situations that several fields can merge to form one single field (“giant atom“) (Bose-Einstein condensation).
The mutual area of oscillation is already a simple kind of linkage between two atoms; we call it the covalent bond. It leads to an extension of the electron waves around the new formation. But this bond is not very strong, it is predominantly maintained by the universal pressure (environmental pressure). This is on no account a complete fusion of two protons because the two atoms feel just enough of the curving force that they form a loose friendship. For that reason, hydrogen is usually found in pairs. We call such a pair a hydrogen molecule (H2). The magnitude of its bond - stronger than any gravitational effect of central masses and weaker than the curving force - received the name Van der Waals force. Due to the previously applicable theories it could not be substantiated with gravitation (although it appears to be very similar to it) but in truth it is of course also a consequence of the universal pressure. The correct way of looking at it is that not a “bond” of two fields came into being but that a new mutual field has formed - i.e. there should be no talk about bonding forces at all.
The mutual impulse field is depicted in figure 43. This is more or less what a hydrogen molecule looks like (projected two-dimensionally). The depth of the penetration into each other is determined by the motional condition (energy) of the oscillation image. The more energy is supplied to the system, the farther away the atoms will move from each
It would be conceivable that there were further attachments of hydrogen atoms; that hydrogen would form chains (clusters) similar to water. That this does not happen is due to the utilization of space, as we will soon see when we are making some adjustments to the form of the hydrogen molecule. Two fields facing each other always exert the repulsion principle on one another. Apart from the place where they overlap, they shove the rest of the other field away. For that reason, the fields are getting a little deformed. We could say that the two fields shadow the universal pressure a little for one another and each is squeezing itself into this shadow. The final appearance of a hydrogen molecule would therefore have to be approximately as we tried to make clear in figure 44.
The mutual pressure deforms the molecule to a doorknob- or dumbbell-shaped formation (for very similar reasons, a single hydrogen atom could also adopt such a doorknob- and dumbbell-state of course). The immediate environment also plays a role in that because the hydrogen molecules are most often among their own kind and fill the space as tightly as possible. The interaction of individual pressure and universal pressure (environmental pressure) therefore creates a picture as shown in figure 45.
We will also find analogous events in the fields of the sky, for example with Earth and moon. As it is, the moon is clearly deformed into a kind of pear-shape and literally held in its shadow while the same process squeezes the Earth into an egg shape and causes tides on both sides. Thus it is not some “force of attraction” exerted by the moon which makes the waters rise but the universal pressure diminished by the moon which allows it (figure 46).
One single hydrogen atom would have to be very big after all to be considered as the cause of light waves. This has purely dimensional reasons because the wavelength of light could be scarcely fit into an atom. Hydrogen molecules, however, rather supply such wavelengths which we know from the hydrogen. If we assume that every energy supply can also only lead to quantised modifications to the distance of the two fields because of the quantisation of the electron impulses, we will discover that the proportions of the molecule change with corresponding regularity due to the described shadowing effect. Thus the surface proportions of the dumbbell-shaped double field are discontinuously shifted towards each other to a very particularly determined extent.
We projected this proportion in figure 47 by simply making the shadow of the pressure act upon the respective other field - starting out from quantised increases in distance. And here is the most astonishing thing: the proportions of the lines created in that way indicate exactly the lines of the hydrogen spectrum according to Balmer! We enlarged the proportions and compared them with the Balmer series: they have the same spacing! This means that the wavelengths of the hydrogen have something to do with the front surfaces of the hydrogen molecule. Even if one suspects that the molecule in the light arc is breaking up due to the high energy applied the mutual shadowing of the atoms still remains thus maintaining such an operative mechanism. Through that it is revealed that the electron impulse around the atoms triggers new impulses, which follow each other chronologically, and that these frequencies correspond to the spatial modification to the front faces (1 and 2 in the illustration). We can demonstrate it in a simple geometric way. We should not forget in our considerations that light is not a real wave but a chronological succession of individual impulses.
A wavelength (3) is produced which apparently exceeds the magnitude dimension of the molecule by far but this explanation is more satisfactory in many respects than the electron jumping from orbit to orbit according to Bohr which has the flaw to be in stark contrast to electrodynamics and burdened by the knowledge that an electron orbiting around the nucleus like a planet cannot exist from the outset because it would have to fall into the nucleus after a few nanoseconds. That is to say, if seen as a particle, it would continuously loose radiation energy.
Since the atoms always change their distances to each other discontinuously – because of the inevitable levelling out of new overlap integrals - they act only in unobtrusively emitted or adopted magnitudes of energy. We see, quantum physics is on no account only an
It is predictable that elements which make us suppose an outside structure that is very similar to that of the hydrogen atom on the basis of their chemical properties alone will supply very similar spectra as well. As it is, we find the Balmer series again with lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, lanthanum, and francium. From an electron-theoretical point of view all these elements are assigned one electron on the outer shell.
So this is what we discovered: due to the repulsion principle the uniform modifications to the distance of two (or even several) fields towards each other lead to quantised dimensional changes in the fields which exercise a direct influence on the radiated impulses, i.e. their frequencies and wavelengths. The connection is obvious and easy to comprehend. This effect results for the reason that atomic fields partially “shadow” (shield off) the universal pressure (environmental pressure, pressure, or shove coming from other fields) in accordance with their energetic density replacing it with their own pressure
Later this shadowing effect of the universal pressure discovered with the hydrogen will lead us to a surprising discovery on the subject of the macrocosm and will lift the veil from a law of astronomy which has been unsolved until today.